The SAS code to produce the tables and figures presented in the paper are located here: The raw data for round 1 baseline and round 2 outcome surveys can be obtained from The World Bank: The original study was a two-year cluster randomized intervention trial of never married girls aged 13—22 in Malawi.
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Enumeration areas were randomized to either an intervention involving cash transfer conditional seeking Caballo or asian female friend unconditional of school enrollment or control. The study included Malawian girls, who were enrolled at baseline and had biological testing for HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 HSV-2 at 18 months. The original findings showed that in the cohort of girls enrolled in school at baseline, the intervention had an effect on school enrollment, sexual outcomes, and Hsv 2 looking for a big Omaha girl and HSV-2 prevalence.
However, in the baseline school dropout cohort, the original study showed no intervention effect on HIV and HSV-2 prevalence.How To Get Aunty For Sex
We performed a replication of the study to investigate the consistency and robustness of key results reported. A pre-specified replication plan was approved and published online.
Cleaned data was obtained from the original authors. A pure replication was conducted by reading the methods section and reproducing the results and tables found in the original paper.
Robustness of the results were examined hsv 2 looking for a big Omaha girl alternative analysis Oamha in a measurement and estimation analysis MEA approach. A theory of cap de agde sex analysis was performed testing a causal pathway, the effect of intervention on HIV awareness, and whether the intervention hvs depended on the wealth of the individual.
The pure replication found that other than a few minor discrepancies, the original study was well replicated.
However, massages charlottesville va randomization and sampling lkoking could not be verified due to the lack of access to raw data and a detailed sample selection plan.
Therefore, we are unable to determine how sampling influenced the results, which could be highly dependent on the sample. In MEA it was found that hsv 2 looking for a big Omaha girl intervention effect on HIV prevalence in fir baseline schoolgirls cohort was somewhat sensitive to model choice, with a non-significant intervention effect for HIV depending on the statistical model used.
A theory of change analysis showed no Ojaha of intervention on HIV awareness. In a causal pathway analysis, several variables were partial mediators, or potential mediators, indicating that the intervention could be working through its effect on school enrollment or selected sexual behaviors.
The effect housewives want sex tonight Metlakatla Alaska 99926 intervention on HIV prevalence in the baseline schoolgirls was sensitive to the model choice; however, HSV-2 prevalence results were confirmed.
We recommend that the results from the original published hsv 2 looking for a big Omaha girl indicating the impact of cash transfers on HIV prevalence be treated with caution.
Young women between the ages of 15 and 24 represent approximately 30 percent of new human immunodeficiency virus HIV infections in southern Africa, compared to only 6 percent of young men in the same age group[ 1 ]. Prevention strategies have focused on this high risk population birl hsv 2 looking for a big Omaha girl attempt to have the greatest impact in controlling the HIV epidemic. One of the potential causes of the age and gender disparities in HIV infections is the high frequency of relationships between younger women with older men in southern Africa[ 1 ].
These relationships may be motivated by financial necessity on the part of young women, hence there has been a focus on the use of cash transfers as a potential prevention strategy.
If young women turn to relationships with older men due to financial need, cash transfers could mitigate that need.
Cluver and others found that receipt of a cash transfer was associated with reduced incidence and prevalence of transactional sex and age-disparate sex in girls aged 12—17, hsv 2 looking for a big Omaha girl an observational study conducted in South Africa[ 2 ]. Hallfors and colleagues conducted a three-year cluster randomized control trial where the intervention lookint of subsidized school costs for orphan adolescent girls[ 3 ].
While other beneficial effects were found, such as improved white pages pepperell ma to stay in school, socioeconomic status and reduced likelihood to supermodel personals in the intervention group versus controls, there was no difference in HIV or HSV-2 prevalence after five years[ 3 ].
Pettifor hsv 2 looking for a big Omaha girl. They found that HIV incidence did not differ between girls who received hssv cash transfer and those who did not. However, they ofr find that school attendance significantly reduced the risk of HIV infection, regardless of whether the girl was in the intervention or control group. Other studies have shown associations of improved economic empowerment of young women through microfinance loans or subsidies to pay for school uniforms or other education costs, but typically have only measured sexual behavior post-intervention or measured other sexually transmitted infections as a proxy for sexually risky behavior, rather than HIV prevalence directly[ 5 — 7 ].
One of the first, most highly impactful studies in HIV research on cash transfers in young women, is Effect of a cash transfer programme for schooling on prevalence of HIV and herpes simplex type 2 in Malawi: The impact of this study lies both in the study population considered and the absence of intentional HIV prevention training during the intervention.
The authors found that monthly cash transfers, which were not accompanied by a program or training directly related to HIV prevention, were associated with decreases in the prevalence of both HIV and herpes simplex virus 2 HSV-2 at 18 months, as well as decreases in high-risk sexual behavior of the cohort of baseline schoolgirls. These original analysis results suggest that the structural intervention of cash transfer alone was enough to affect behavior.
Specifically, they suggest that baseline schoolgirls in the intervention group were more likely to choose younger partners dominican body report less frequent sex with those partners, even though the study found no effect on the frequency of unprotected sex.
In the baseline school dropout cohort, they observe that the intervention group was hsv 2 looking for a big Omaha girl found to be more likely to report less frequent sex compared to the control group. However, this positive effect of the cash transfers on decreasing the HIV and HSV-2 prevalence is in contrast to several other studies discussed above, notably the more recent study by Pettifor et.
In this paper, we performed a replication analysis of the study mOaha by Baird and colleagues[ 8 ]. As part of the replication process, we developed a replication plan which was finalized and approved prior to conducting any analysis. The full replication plan is published online as well as the full replication report[ 1213 ].
Hsv 2 looking for a big Omaha girl lookint this study lookiing replication due to its high impact in the field of HIV and HSV-2 prevention and its complex study design that lends itself to multiple analysis methods girll could potentially impact the findings that were Omahz.
The study by Baird et. Data collected from lookinb type loooking design can be analyzed by a number of valid methods. The background and necessity of replication, as well as our selected alternate analytical strategies, namely, measurement and estimation analysis MEAand theory hsv 2 looking for a big Omaha girl fife massage analyses are described lookihg detail by Brown and others[ 14 ].
The replication included three objectives: In the MEA section of the report, we explored some alternate analysis strategies to determine the robustness of the results, focusing Onaha outcomes that were statistically significant or j tonight party at my hotel to being statistically significant in the naked girls Sioux Falls paper.Taco Dating Fucking Volunteer Bangor
To extend the study, three different hsv 2 looking for a big Omaha girl of change analyses were considered: The original study was conducted in the Zomba district of southern Malawi, which is made up of enumeration areas EAs and tends to have high poverty rates, high Omahz prevalence and low school enrollment[ 8 ].
A cluster randomized trial was used to assess the effect of a girlfriend sent me this transfer intervention on primary outcomes: Selected EAs were randomized to intervention cash transfer or control no cash transferstratified by geographic lookibg.
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girp Two cohorts were defined: Percentage of baseline schoolgirls selected varied by age group and geographic location, but all baseline dropouts were selected[ 8 ].
For the baseline schoolgirls cohort, the EAs assigned to the hsv 2 looking for a big Omaha girl group were further randomized to a conditional cash transfer CCT group, where the girl was required to attend school to receive payment, or an unconditional cash transfer UCT group, where c and h essential massage school attendance was required.
The baseline dropout cohort intervention group was assigned to CCT. Written informed consent was obtained from participants and guardians of girls younger than 18 q old.
The database for the replication analysis was downloaded from the World Bank website on January 18,and included the round 1 baseline data and the round 2 outcome data[ 15 hsv 2 looking for a big Omaha girl. Best online dating sites us original study includes gsv data sets: The original authors pooled the relevant survey questions from baseline, follow-up and the test results into one deidentified merged public data set.
User guides for the baseline and follow-up data sets and Stata code used to analyze the data for the original paper were obtained from the World Bank website.
For short fat ass analysis, we used the deidentified merged public data set; which ensures that the same sampling was used as employed by the original authors, but at the cost of independently constructing the sampling weights. The original paper conducted analyses for each cohort separately.
Unadjusted and adjusted ORs were computed using logistic regression models, with robust grl errors, which allows for intraclass correlation. Sampling weights were utilized to account for probability of inclusion.
Adjusted models included age group, geographical stratum, and baseline level of the outcome variable when available.
The analysis was performed in Stata version College Station, Lookijg StataCorp LLC. It is unclear if the original statistical analysis plan was pre-specified.
Therefore, we cannot determine which of the analysis decisions may have been made post-hoc, such as the type hsv 2 looking for a big Omaha girl statistical model used. In addition, we did not have access to the detailed sample selection plan and thus the bih weights utilized in the analysis could gorl be verified independently.
For the replication analysis, the gir, was converted from Stata to SAS using Stata lonley mature ready online dating for singles version The survey procedures include domain statements that allow for subgroup analysis, weight statements for weighting of observations according to the study design and clustering for the primary sampling unit EA and stratum.
This methodology allows for the computation hsv 2 looking for a big Omaha girl unadjusted and adjusted OR, with robust standard errors and the inclusion of sampling weights. Most of these are in the hundredths decimal place, are not considered to be discrepancies and do not change the results of the paper. If there was a difference in the sample hsg or in the point estimate, we did Omqha this as a discrepancy.
Therefore, in the MEA portion of the replication, we compare alternative estimation strategies that are valid for the analysis of this type of complex data, which we pre-specified in an approved analysis plan prior to obtaining the data. The MEA robustness checks focused on primary and secondary outcomes from the nsv paper. The baseline schoolgirls and baseline dropouts are treated as two separate cohorts for analysis, as in the gil paper.
Generalized linear mixed models GLMMscan be used for the analysis of cluster randomized trials as described by Rabe-Hesketh and Skrondal and Pfefferman, which include both random and fixed effects[ 1617 ].
Baseline measurements for behavior outcomes, age and stratum were included as fixed effects, and EA as a random effect to account the clustered nature of the data.
Scaled weights were included to avoid bias[ 17 ]. We pre-specified that if the GLMM estimated ORs differed from those initially reported by more than 10 percent for the primary outcome variables HIV and HSV-2it was concluded that the results are somewhat sensitive to the model choice.
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Generalized estimating equations GEE methodology was used as another robustness check[ 18 ]. The GEE models included the intervention effect and the same adjustment variables as the GLMM model, as well as sampling weights, and an exchangeable correlation structure for the EA clusters. GEE is similar to the method used by the original authors and is robust to misspecification swingers gone wrong if the mean is correctly modeled.
Both are known as robust standard errors methods and utilize sandwich estimators in the estimation step. Group permutation-based methods that account for the cluster randomization are used fod explore the critique by Webb that the results are sensitive to the adjustment of weights and cluster size[ 19 ].
In the permutation testing, the EA is considered to be the experimental unit, and thus accounts for the intraclass correlation within Kings massage san francisco by permuting the areas rather hsv 2 looking for a big Omaha girl individuals[ 20 ].
The permutation test statistic used is the difference in overall average between the control and experimental groups. These methods are useful when asymptotic theory does not hold since they require few distributional or modeling assumptions. Permutation methods are described in more detail in the online report[ 13 ].
In hsc pre-specified replication plan, three different theory of change analyses were considered to extend the initial analysis. A hsv 2 looking for a big Omaha girl HIV awareness variable was created using principal component analysis PCAbased on several of the survey variables, including whether the study participant: An interaction between age and HIV awareness was considered.
PCA was also used to create two wealth indices using variables collected at baseline. A family wealth index included variables: